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Under the spotlight

Lactate exacerbates lung damage induced by nano microplastic through the gut microbiota–HIF1a/PTBP1 pathway

Xuan et al., 2023
Experimental & molecular medicine

Branched microtubule nucleation and dynein transport organize RanGTP asters in Xenopus laevis egg extract

Scrofani et al., 2023
Molecular biology of the cell

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Welles, RM;Sojitra, KA;Garabedian, MV;Xia, B;Wang, W;Guan, M;Regy, RM;Gallagher, ER;Hammer, DA;Mittal, J;Good, MC;
Nature chemistry,
Cells harbour numerous mesoscale membraneless compartments that house specific biochemical processes and perform distinct cellular functions. These protein- and RNA-rich bodies are thought to form through multivalent interactions among proteins and nucleic acids, resulting in demixing via liquid-liquid phase separation. Proteins harbouring intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) predominate in membraneless organelles. However, it is not known whether IDR sequence alone can dictate the formation of distinct condensed phases. We identified a pair of IDRs capable of forming spatially distinct condensates when expressed in cells. When reconstituted in vitro, these model proteins do not co-partition, suggesting condensation specificity is encoded directly in the polypeptide sequences. Through computational modelling and mutagenesis, we identified the amino acids and chain properties governing homotypic and heterotypic interactions that direct selective condensation. These results form the basis of physicochemical principles that may direct subcellular organization of IDRs into specific condensates and reveal an IDR code that can guide construction of orthogonal membraneless compartments.
Adem, B;Bastos, N;Ruivo, CF;Sousa-Alves, S;Dias, C;Vieira, PF;Batista, IA;Cavadas, B;Saur, D;Machado, JC;Cai, D;Melo, SA;
Nature communications,
15,
(1),
1496,
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a lethal disease, requires a grasp of its biology for effective therapies. Exosomes, implicated in cancer, are poorly understood in living systems. Here we use the genetically engineered mouse model (ExoBow) to map the spatiotemporal distribution of exosomes from healthy and PDAC pancreas in vivo to determine their biological significance. We show that, within the PDAC microenvironment, cancer cells establish preferential communication routes through exosomes with cancer associated fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The latter being a conserved event in the healthy pancreas. Inhibiting exosomes secretion in both scenarios enhances angiogenesis, underscoring their contribution to vascularization and to cancer. Inter-organ communication is significantly increased in PDAC with specific organs as most frequent targets of exosomes communication occurring in health with the thymus, bone-marrow, brain, and intestines, and in PDAC with the kidneys, lungs and thymus. In sum, we find that exosomes mediate an organized intra- and inter- pancreas communication network with modulatory effects in vivo.
Prentice, JA;van de Weerd, R;Bridges, AA;
Nature communications,
15,
(1),
2018,
Matrix-encapsulated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, are ubiquitous in the environment and are notoriously difficult to eliminate in clinical and industrial settings. Biofilm formation likely evolved as a mechanism to protect resident cells from environmental challenges, yet how bacteria undergo threat assessment to inform biofilm development remains unclear. Here we find that population-level cell lysis events induce the formation of biofilms by surviving Vibrio cholerae cells. Survivors detect threats by sensing a cellular component released through cell lysis, which we identify as norspermidine. Lysis sensing occurs via the MbaA receptor with genus-level specificity, and responsive biofilm cells are shielded from phage infection and attacks from other bacteria. Thus, our work uncovers a connection between bacterial lysis and biofilm formation that may be broadly conserved among microorganisms.
ElBeck, Z;Hossain, MB;Siga, H;Oskolkov, N;Karlsson, F;Lindgren, J;Walentinsson, A;Koppenhöfer, D;Jarvis, R;Bürli, R;Jamier, T;Franssen, E;Firth, M;Degasperi, A;Bendtsen, C;Menzies, RI;Streckfuss-Bömeke, K;Kohlhaas, M;Nickel, AG;Lund, LH;Maack, C;Végvári, Á;Betsholtz, C;
Nature communications,
15,
(1),
2358,
While excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a characteristic hallmark of numerous diseases, clinical approaches that ameliorate oxidative stress have been unsuccessful. Here, utilizing multi-omics, we demonstrate that in cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) constitutes a major antioxidative defense mechanism. Paradoxically reduced expression of IDH2 associated with ventricular eccentric hypertrophy is counterbalanced by an increase in the enzyme activity. We unveil redox-dependent sex dimorphism, and extensive mutual regulation of the antioxidative activities of IDH2 and NRF2 by a feedforward network that involves 2-oxoglutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate and mediated in part through unconventional hydroxy-methylation of cytosine residues present in introns. Consequently, conditional targeting of ROS in a murine model of heart failure improves cardiac function in sex- and phenotype-dependent manners. Together, these insights may explain why previous attempts to treat heart failure with antioxidants have been unsuccessful and open new approaches to personalizing and, thereby, improving such treatment.
Russo, M;Gualdrini, F;Vallelonga, V;Prosperini, E;Noberini, R;Pedretti, S;Borriero, C;Di Chiaro, P;Polletti, S;Imperato, G;Marenda, M;Ghirardi, C;Bedin, F;Cuomo, A;Rodighiero, S;Bonaldi, T;Mitro, N;Ghisletti, S;Natoli, G;
Molecular cell,
84,
(5),
967-980.e10,
Histone-modifying enzymes depend on the availability of cofactors, with acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) being required for histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. The discovery that mitochondrial acyl-CoA-producing enzymes translocate to the nucleus suggests that high concentrations of locally synthesized metabolites may impact acylation of histones and other nuclear substrates, thereby controlling gene expression. Here, we show that 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases are stably associated with the Mediator complex, thus providing a local supply of acetyl-CoA and increasing the generation of hyper-acetylated histone tails. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced in large amounts in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, inhibited the activity of Mediator-associated 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Elevation of NO levels and the disruption of Mediator complex integrity both affected de novo histone acetylation within a shared set of genomic regions. Our findings indicate that the local supply of acetyl-CoA generated by 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases bound to Mediator is required to maximize acetylation of histone tails at sites of elevated HAT activity.
Nguyen, OTP;Misun, PM;Hierlemann, A;Lohasz, C;
Advanced healthcare materials,
13,
(7),
e2302454,
The multifactorial nature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) necessitates reliable and practical experimental models to elucidate its etiology and pathogenesis. To model the intestinal microenvironment at the onset of IBD in vitro, it is important to incorporate relevant cellular and noncellular components before inducing stepwise pathogenic developments. A novel intestine-on-chip system for investigating multiple aspects of IBD’s immunopathogenesis is presented. The system includes an array of tight and polarized barrier models formed from intestinal epithelial cells on an in-vivo-like subepithelial matrix within one week. The dynamic remodeling of the subepithelial matrix by cells or their secretome demonstrates the physiological relevance of the on-chip barrier models. The system design enables introduction of various immune cell types and inflammatory stimuli at specific locations in the same barrier model, which facilitates investigations of the distinct roles of each cell type in intestinal inflammation development. It is showed that inflammatory behavior manifests in an upregulated expression of inflammatory markers and cytokines (TNF-α). The neutralizing effect of the anti-inflammatory antibody Infliximab on levels of TNF-α and its inducible cytokines could be explicitly shown. Overall, an innovative approach to systematically developing a microphysiological system to comprehend immune-system-mediated disorders of IBD and to identify new therapeutic strategies is presented.
Reggente, M;Roullier, C;Mouhib, M;Brandl, P;Wang, H;Tacconi, S;Mura, F;Dini, L;Labarile, R;Trotta, M;Fischer, F;Boghossian, A;
Nano Research,
17,
(2),
866-874,
Living photovoltaics are microbial electrochemical devices that use whole cell-electrode interactions to convert solar energy to electricity. The bottleneck in these technologies is the limited electron transfer between the microbe and the electrode surface. This study focuses on enhancing this transfer by engineering a polydopamine (PDA) coating on the outer membrane of the photosynthetic microbe Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. This coating provides a conductive nanoparticle shell to increase electrode adhesion and improve microbial charge extraction. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis absorption, and Raman spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the nanoparticle shell under various synthesis conditions. The cell viability and activity were further assessed through oxygen evolution, growth curve, and confocal fluorescence microscopy measurements. The results show sustained cell growth and detectable PDA surface coverage under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7.5) and at low initial dopamine (DA) concentrations (1 mM). The exoelectrogenicity of the cells prepared under these conditions was also characterized through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The measurements show a three-fold enhancement in the photocurrent at an applied bias of 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl [3 M KCl]) compared to non-coated cells. This study thus lays the framework for engineering the next generation of living photovoltaics with improved performances using biosynthetic electrodes.
Rosito, M;Maqbool, J;Reccagni, A;Giampaoli, O;Sciubba, F;Antonangeli, F;Scavizzi, F;Raspa, M;Cordella, F;Tondo, L;Di Angelantonio, S;Trettel, F;Miccheli, A;D'Alessandro, G;Limatola, C;
Cell death & disease,
15,
(3),
210,
In recent years, several studies described the close relationship between the composition of gut microbiota and brain functions, highlighting the importance of gut-derived metabolites in mediating neuronal and glial cells cross-talk in physiological and pathological condition. Gut dysbiosis may affects cerebral tumors growth and progression, but the specific metabolites involved in this modulation have not been identified yet. Using a syngeneic mouse model of glioma, we have investigated the role of dysbiosis induced by the administration of non-absorbable antibiotics on mouse metabolome and on tumor microenvironment. We report that antibiotics treatment induced: (1) alteration of the gut and brain metabolome profiles; (2) modeling of tumor microenvironment toward a pro-angiogenic phenotype in which microglia and glioma cells are actively involved; (3) increased glioma stemness; (4) trans-differentiation of glioma cells into endothelial precursor cells, thus increasing vasculogenesis. We propose glycine as a metabolite that, in ABX-induced dysbiosis, shapes brain microenvironment and contributes to glioma growth and progression.
Naso, FD;Polverino, F;Cilluffo, D;Latini, L;Stagni, V;Asteriti, IA;Rosa, A;Soddu, S;Guarguaglini, G;
Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease,
1870,
(4),
167116,
The Aurora-A kinase (AurkA) and its major regulator TPX2 (Targeting Protein for Xklp2) are key mitotic players frequently co-overexpressed in human cancers, and the link between deregulation of the AurkA/TPX2 complex and tumourigenesis is actively investigated. Chromosomal instability, one of the hallmarks of cancer related to the development of intra-tumour heterogeneity, metastasis and chemo-resistance, has been frequently associated with TPX2-overexpressing tumours. In this study we aimed to investigate the actual contribution to chromosomal instability of deregulating the AurkA/TPX2 complex, by overexpressing it in nontransformed hTERT RPE-1 cells. Our results show that overexpression of both AurkA and TPX2 results in increased AurkA activation and severe mitotic defects, compared to AurkA overexpression alone. We also show that AurkA/TPX2 co-overexpression yields increased aneuploidy in daughter cells and the generation of micronucleated cells. Interestingly, the p53/p21 axis response is impaired in AurkA/TPX2 overexpressing cells subjected to different stimuli; consistently, cells acquire increased ability to proliferate after independent induction of mitotic errors, i.e. following nocodazole treatment. Based on our observation that increased levels of the AurkA/TPX2 complex affect chromosome segregation fidelity and interfere with the activation of a pivotal surveillance mechanism in response to altered cell division, we propose that co-overexpression of AurkA and TPX2 per se represents a condition promoting the generation of a genetically unstable context in nontransformed human cells.
Leoncini, G;Cari, L;Ronchetti, S;Donato, F;Caruso, L;Calafà, C;Villanacci, V;
International journal of molecular sciences,
25,
(3),
A structural weakness of the mucus barrier (MB) is thought to be a cause of ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aims to investigate the mucin (MUC) composition of MB in normal mucosa and UC. Ileocolonic biopsies were taken at disease onset and after treatment in 40 patients, including 20 with relapsing and 20 with remitting UC. Ileocolonic biopsies from 10 non-IBD patients were included as controls. Gut-specific MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC12, MUC13, MUC15, and MUC17 were evaluated immunohistochemically. The promoters of mucin genes were also examined. Normal mucosa showed MUC2, MUC5B, and MUC13 in terminal ileum and colon, MUC17 in ileum, and MUC1, MUC4, MUC12, and MUC15 in colon. Membranous, cytoplasmic and vacuolar expressions were highlighted. Overall, the mucin expression was abnormal in UC. Derangements in MUC1, MUC4, and MUC5B were detected both at onset and after treatment. MUC2 and MUC13 were unaffected. Sequence analysis revealed glucocorticoid-responsive elements in the MUC1 promoter, retinoic-acid-responsive elements in the MUC4 promoter, and butyrate-responsive elements in the MUC5B promoter. In conclusion, MUCs exhibited distinct expression patterns in the gut. Their expression was disrupted in UC, regardless of the treatment protocols. Abnormal MUC1, MUC4, and MUC5B expression marked the barrier dysfunction in UC.
Morishima, Y;Kawabori, M;Yamazaki, K;Takamiya, S;Yamaguchi, S;Nakahara, Y;Senjo, H;Hashimoto, D;Masuda, S;Fujioka, Y;Ohba, Y;Mizuno, Y;Kuge, Y;Fujimura, M;
International journal of molecular sciences,
25,
(4),
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to devastating sequelae, demanding effective treatments. Recent advancements have unveiled the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) produced by infiltrated neutrophils in exacerbating secondary inflammation after SCI, making it a potential target for treatment intervention. Previous research has established that intravenous administration of stem cell-derived exosomes can mitigate injuries. While stem cell-derived exosomes have demonstrated the ability to modulate microglial reactions and enhance blood-brain barrier integrity, their impact on neutrophil deactivation, especially in the context of NETs, remains poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the effects of intravenous administration of MSC-derived exosomes, with a specific focus on NET formation, and to elucidate the associated molecular mechanisms. Exosomes were isolated from the cell supernatants of amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells using the ultracentrifugation method. Spinal cord injuries were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (9 weeks old) using a clip injury model, and 100 μg of exosomes in 1 mL of PBS or PBS alone were intravenously administered 24 h post-injury. Motor function was assessed serially for up to 28 days following the injury. On Day 3 and Day 28, spinal cord specimens were analyzed to evaluate the extent of injury and the formation of NETs. Flow cytometry was employed to examine the formation of circulating neutrophil NETs. Exogenous miRNA was electroporated into neutrophil to evaluate the effect of inflammatory NET formation. Finally, the biodistribution of exosomes was assessed using 64Cu-labeled exosomes in animal positron emission tomography (PET). Rats treated with exosomes exhibited a substantial improvement in motor function recovery and a reduction in injury size. Notably, there was a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration and NET formation within the spinal cord, as well as a reduction in neutrophils forming NETs in the circulation. In vitro investigations indicated that exosomes accumulated in the vicinity of the nuclei of activated neutrophils, and neutrophils electroporated with the miR-125a-3p mimic exhibited a significantly diminished NET formation, while miR-125a-3p inhibitor reversed the effect. PET studies revealed that, although the majority of the transplanted exosomes were sequestered in the liver and spleen, a notably high quantity of exosomes was detected in the damaged spinal cord when compared to normal rats. MSC-derived exosomes play a pivotal role in alleviating spinal cord injury, in part through the deactivation of NET formation via miR-125a-3p.
Mishra, P;Sivakumar, A;Johnson, A;Pernaci, C;Warden, AS;El-Hachem, LR;Hansen, E;Badell-Grau, RA;Khare, V;Ramirez, G;Gillette, S;Solis, AB;Guo, P;Coufal, N;Cherqui, S;
Frontiers in pharmacology,
15,
1323491,
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a multisystemic, autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous GAA expansion mutation in the first intron of frataxin (FXN) gene. FXN is a mitochondrial protein critical for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and deficiency impairs mitochondrial electron transport chain functions and iron homeostasis within the organelle. Currently, there is no effective treatment for FRDA. We have previously demonstrated that single infusion of wild-type hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) resulted in prevention of neurologic and cardiac complications of FRDA in YG8R mice, and rescue was mediated by FXN transfer from tissue engrafted, HSPC-derived microglia/macrophages to diseased neurons/myocytes. For a future clinical translation, we developed an autologous stem cell transplantation approach using CRISPR/Cas9 for the excision of the GAA repeats in FRDA patients’ CD34+ HSPCs; this strategy leading to increased FXN expression and improved mitochondrial functions. The aim of the current study is to validate the efficiency and safety of our gene editing approach in a disease-relevant model. We generated a cohort of FRDA patient-derived iPSCs and isogenic lines that were gene edited with our CRISPR/Cas9 approach. iPSC derived FRDA neurons displayed characteristic apoptotic and mitochondrial phenotype of the disease, such as non-homogenous microtubule staining in neurites, increased caspase-3 expression, mitochondrial superoxide levels, mitochondrial fragmentation, and partial degradation of the cristae compared to healthy controls. These defects were fully prevented in the gene edited neurons. RNASeq analysis of FRDA and gene edited neurons demonstrated striking improvement in gene clusters associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the isogenic lines. Gene edited neurons demonstrated improved ER-calcium release, normalization of ER stress response gene, XBP-1, and significantly increased ER-mitochondrial contacts that are critical for functional homeostasis of both organelles, as compared to FRDA neurons. Ultrastructural analysis for these contact sites displayed severe ER structural damage in FRDA neurons, that was undetected in gene edited neurons. Taken together, these results represent a novel finding for disease pathogenesis showing dramatic ER structural damage in FRDA, validate the efficacy profile of our FXN gene editing approach in a disease relevant model, and support our approach as an effective strategy for therapeutic intervention for Friedreich’s ataxia.
Lomphithak, T;Sae-Fung, A;Sprio, S;Tampieri, A;Jitkaew, S;Fadeel, B;
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine,
55,
102714,
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with poor survival rates. Here, we evaluated iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) as a potential nanomedicine-based approach to combat PDAC. FeHA, in combination with a sublethal dose of the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) inhibitor RSL3, was found to trigger ferroptosis in KRAS mutant PANC-1 cells, but not in BxPC3 cells, while sparing normal human cells (fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells). These findings were recapitulated in 3D spheroids generated using PDAC cells harboring wild-type versus mutant KRAS. Moreover, ferroptosis induction by FeHA plus RSL3 was reversed by the knockdown of STEAP3, a metalloreductase responsible for converting Fe3+ to Fe2+. Taken together, our data show that FeHA is capable of triggering cancer cell death in a KRAS-selective, STEAP3-dependent manner in PDAC cells.
Colucci, G;Piano, M;Lupone, F;Baruffaldi, D;Frascella, F;Bondioli, F;Messori, M;
Polymer Testing,
131,
108327,
The emerging request to reduce the environmental impact of plastics encourages scientists to use novel sustainable polymeric materials for many applications fields. The present paper aims to use for the first-time poly (butylene succinate) (PBS), a biodegradable and compostable polymer, for Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) applications. PBS is a flexible semicrystalline aliphatic polyester, which can represent a very good alternative to the traditional thermoplastic polymers obtained by fossil sources. The present work started from a lab-scale production of PBS powders by means of an emulsion solvent evaporation/precipitation method, with the purpose to increase the number of polymeric powders available for SLS. The obtained PBS powders were first characterized by morphological and thermal point of view, and then employed as innovative polymeric material in SLS to realized 3D printed parts with increasing geometrical complexity. To confirm PBS cytocompatibility, cell proliferation and cell viability assays (MTT and Live&Dead) were measured using a lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (H1299). The in vitro cytotoxicity of the 3D printed material was also investigated, showing no harm on cells.
Chi, HM;Davies, MR;Garcia, SM;Montenegro, C;Sharma, S;Lizarraga, M;Wang, Z;Nuthalapati, P;Kim, HT;Liu, X;Feeley, BT;
The American journal of sports medicine,
52,
(2),
451-460,
Rotator cuff muscle degeneration leads to poor clinical outcomes for patients with rotator cuff tears. Fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are resident muscle stem cells with the ability to differentiate into fibroblasts as well as white and beige adipose tissue. Induction of the beige adipose phenotype in FAPs has been shown to improve muscle quality after rotator cuff tears, but the mechanisms of how FAPs exert their beneficial effects have not been fully elucidated.To study the horizontal transfer of mitochondria from FAPs to myogenic cells and examine the effects of β-agonism on this novel process.Controlled laboratory study.In mice that had undergone a massive rotator cuff tear, single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on isolated FAPs for genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and transfer. Murine FAPs were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and treated with a β-agonist versus control. FAPs were stained with mitochondrial dyes and cocultured with recipient C2C12 myoblasts, and the rate of transfer was measured after 24 hours by flow cytometry. PdgfraCreERT/MitoTag mice were generated to study the effects of a rotator cuff injury on mitochondrial transfer. PdgfraCreERT/tdTomato mice were likewise generated to perform lineage tracing of PDGFRA+ cells in this injury model. Both populations of transgenic mice underwent tendon transection and denervation surgery, and MitoTag-labeled mitochondria from Pdgfra+ FAPs were visualized by fluorescent microscopy, spinning disk confocal microscopy, and 2-photon microscopy; overall mitochondrial quantity was compared between mice treated with β-agonists and dimethyl sulfoxide.Single-cell RNA sequencing in mice that underwent rotator cuff tear demonstrated an association between transcriptional markers of adipogenic differentiation and genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. In vitro cocultures of murine FAPs with C2C12 cells revealed that treatment of cells with a β-agonist increased mitochondrial transfer compared to control conditions (17.8% ± 9.9% to 99.6% ± 0.13% P < .0001). Rotator cuff injury in PdgfraCreERT/MitoTag mice resulted in a robust increase in MitoTag signal in adjacent myofibers compared with uninjured mice. No accumulation of tdTomato signal from PDGFRA+ cells was seen in injured fibers at 6 weeks after injury, suggesting that FAPs do not fuse with injured muscle fibers but rather contribute their mitochondria.The authors have described a novel process of endogenous mitochondrial transfer that can occur within the injured rotator cuff between FAPs and myogenic cells. This process may be leveraged therapeutically with β-agonist treatment and represents an exciting target for improving translational therapies available for rotator cuff muscle degeneration.Promoting endogenous mitochondrial transfer may represent a novel translational strategy to address muscle degeneration after rotator cuff tears.
Holl, K;Chatain, N;Krapp, S;Baumeister, J;Maié, T;Schmitz, S;Scheufen, A;Brock, N;Koschmieder, S;Moreno-Andrés, D;
Scientific reports,
14,
(1),
2810,
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) encompass a diverse group of hematologic disorders driven by mutations in JAK2, CALR, or MPL. The prevailing working model explaining how these driver mutations induce different disease phenotypes is based on the decisive influence of the cellular microenvironment and the acquisition of additional mutations. Here, we report increased levels of chromatin segregation errors in hematopoietic cells stably expressing CALRdel52 or JAK2V617F mutations. Our investigations employing murine 32DMPL and human erythroleukemic TF-1MPL cells demonstrate a link between CALRdel52 or JAK2V617F expression and a compromised spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a phenomenon contributing to error-prone mitosis. This defective SAC is associated with imbalances in the recruitment of SAC factors to mitotic kinetochores upon CALRdel52 or JAK2V617F expression. We show that JAK2 mutant CD34 + MPN patient-derived cells exhibit reduced expression of the master mitotic regulators PLK1, aurora kinase B, and PP2A catalytic subunit. Furthermore, the expression profile of mitotic regulators in CD34 + patient-derived cells allows to faithfully distinguish patients from healthy controls, as well as to differentiate primary and secondary myelofibrosis from essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. Altogether, our data suggest alterations in mitotic regulation as a potential driver in the pathogenesis in MPN.
Diamanti, T;Trobiani, L;Mautone, L;Serafini, F;Gioia, R;Ferrucci, L;Lauro, C;Bianchi, S;Perfetto, C;Guglielmo, S;Sollazzo, R;Giorda, E;Setini, A;Ragozzino, D;Miranda, E;Comoletti, D;Di Angelantonio, S;Cacci, E;De Jaco, A;
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark),
25,
(1),
e12930,
Neuroligins are synaptic cell adhesion proteins with a role in synaptic function, implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. The autism spectrum disorder-associated substitution Arg451Cys (R451C) in NLGN3 promotes a partial misfolding of the extracellular domain of the protein leading to retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The reduced trafficking of R451C NLGN3 to the cell surface leads to altered synaptic function and social behavior. A screening in HEK-293 cells overexpressing NLGN3 of 2662 compounds (FDA-approved small molecule drug library), led to the identification of several glucocorticoids such as alclometasone dipropionate, desonide, prednisolone sodium phosphate, and dexamethasone (DEX), with the ability to favor the exit of full-length R451C NLGN3 from the ER. DEX improved the stability of R451C NLGN3 and trafficking to the cell surface, reduced the activation of the UPR, and increased the formation of artificial synapses between HEK-293 and hippocampal primary neurons. The effect of DEX was validated on a novel model system represented by neural stem progenitor cells and differentiated neurons derived from the R451C NLGN3 knock-in mouse, expressing the endogenous protein. This work shows a potential rescue strategy for an autism-linked mutation affecting cell surface trafficking of a synaptic protein.
Eddington, C;Schwartz, JK;Titus, MA;
Journal of cell science,
137,
(4),
Filopodia are slender, actin-filled membrane projections used by various cell types for environment exploration. Analyzing filopodia often involves visualizing them using actin, filopodia tip or membrane markers. Due to the diversity of cell types that extend filopodia, from amoeboid to mammalian, it can be challenging for some to find a reliable filopodia analysis workflow suited for their cell type and preferred visualization method. The lack of an automated workflow capable of analyzing amoeboid filopodia with only a filopodia tip label prompted the development of filoVision. filoVision is an adaptable deep learning platform featuring the tools filoTips and filoSkeleton. filoTips labels filopodia tips and the cytosol using a single tip marker, allowing information extraction without actin or membrane markers. In contrast, filoSkeleton combines tip marker signals with actin labeling for a more comprehensive analysis of filopodia shafts in addition to tip protein analysis. The ZeroCostDL4Mic deep learning framework facilitates accessibility and customization for different datasets and cell types, making filoVision a flexible tool for automated analysis of tip-marked filopodia across various cell types and user data.
Benedetti, MC;D'andrea, T;Colantoni, A;Silachev, D;de Turris, V;Boussadia, Z;Babenko, VA;Volovikov, EA;Belikova, L;Bogomazova, AN;Pepponi, R;Whye, D;Buttermore, ED;Tartaglia, GG;Lagarkova, MA;Katanaev, VL;Musayev, I;Martinelli, S;Fucile, S;Rosa, A;
Heliyon,
10,
(5),
e26656,
Pathogenic variants in the GNAO1 gene, encoding the alpha subunit of an inhibitory heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Go) highly expressed in the mammalian brain, have been linked to encephalopathy characterized by different combinations of neurological symptoms, including developmental delay, hypotonia, epilepsy and hyperkinetic movement disorder with life-threatening paroxysmal exacerbations. Currently, there are only symptomatic treatments, and little is known about the pathophysiology of GNAO1-related disorders. Here, we report the characterization of a new in vitro model system based on patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carrying the recurrent p.G203R amino acid substitution in Gαo, and a CRISPR-Cas9-genetically corrected isogenic control line. RNA-Seq analysis highlighted aberrant cell fate commitment in neuronal progenitor cells carrying the p.G203R pathogenic variant. Upon differentiation into cortical neurons, patients’ cells showed reduced expression of early neural genes and increased expression of astrocyte markers, as well as premature and defective differentiation processes leading to aberrant formation of neuronal rosettes. Of note, comparable defects in gene expression and in the morphology of neural rosettes were observed in hiPSCs from an unrelated individual harboring the same GNAO1 variant. Functional characterization showed lower basal intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), reduced frequency of spontaneous activity, and a smaller response to several neurotransmitters in 40- and 50-days differentiated p.G203R neurons compared to control cells. These findings suggest that the GNAO1 pathogenic variant causes a neurodevelopmental phenotype characterized by aberrant differentiation of both neuronal and glial populations leading to a significant alteration of neuronal communication and signal transduction.
Akdag, M;van Schijndel, V;Sinnige, T;
Biophysical chemistry,
307,
107180,
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes and represents a growing health concern. A characteristic feature of T2D is the aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is thought to be associated with the death of pancreatic β-cells. Inhibiting IAPP aggregation is a promising therapeutic avenue to treat T2D, but the mechanisms of aggregation and toxicity are not yet fully understood. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-characterised multicellular model organism that has been extensively used to study protein aggregation diseases. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple in vivo model to investigate IAPP aggregation and toxicity based on expression in the C. elegans body wall muscle cells. We show that IAPP tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) localises to mitochondria not only in muscle cells but also when expressed in the intestine, in line with previous observations in mouse and human pancreatic β-cells. The IAPP-GFP fusion protein forms solid aggregates, which have a filamentous appearance as seen by electron microscopy. However, the animals expressing IAPP-GFP in the body wall muscle cells do not display a strong motility phenotype, suggesting that the IAPP-GFP aggregates are not considerably toxic. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial localisation and aggregate formation may be useful read-outs to screen for IAPP-solubilizing compounds as a therapeutic strategy for T2D.

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