Author: dinamo

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Chandrakar, P;Varghese, M;Aghvami, S;Baskaran, A;Dogic, Z;Duclos, G.
arXiv,
(2020)
Spontaneous growth of long-wavelength deformations is a defining feature of active fluids with orientational order. We investigate the effect of biaxial rectangular confinement on the instability of initially shear-aligned 3D isotropic active fluids composed of extensile microtubule bundles and kinesin molecular motors. Under confinement, such fluids exhibit finite-wavelength self-amplifying bend deformations which grow in the plane orthogonal to the direction of the strongest confinement. Both the instability wavelength and the growth rate increase with weakening confinement. These findings are consistent with a minimal hydrodynamic model, which predicts that the fastest growing deformation is set by a balance of active driving and elastic relaxation. Experiments in the highly confined regime confirm that the instability wavelength is set by the balance of active and elastic stresses, which are independently controlled by the concentration of motors and non-motile crosslinkers.
Wahis, J;Kerspern, D;Althammer, F;Baudon, A;Goyon, S;Hagiwara, D;Lefèvre, A;Boury-Jamot, B;Bellanger, B;Abatis, M;da Gouveia, M;Benusiglio, D;Eliava, M;Rozov, A;Weinsanto, I;Knobloch-Bollmann, H;Wang, H;Pertin, M;Inquimbert, P;Pitzer, C;Siemens, J;Goumon, Y;Boutrel, B;Darbon, P;Lamy, C;Stern, J;Décosterd, I;Chatton, J;Young, W;Stoop, R;Poisbeau, P;Grinevich, V;Charlet, A.
bioRxiv,
(2020)
Oxytocin orchestrates social and emotional behaviors through modulation of neural circuits in brain structures such as the central amygdala (CeA). The long-standing dogma is that oxytocin signaling in the central nervous system occurs exclusively via direct actions on neurons. However, several findings over the last decades showed that astrocytes actively participate in the modulation of neuronal circuits. Here, we investigate the degree of astrocytes’ involvement in oxytocin functions. Using astrocyte’ specific gain and loss of function approaches, we demonstrate that CeA astrocytes not only directly respond to oxytocin, but are actually necessary for its effects on neuronal circuits and ultimately behavior. Our work identifies astrocytes as a crucial cellular substrate underlying the promotion of a positive emotional state by oxytocin. These results further corroborate that astrocytes are key regulators of neuronal circuits activity by responding to specific neuropeptidergic inputs, and opens up new perspectives to understand how neuromodulators gate brain functions.
Ballabio, C;Gianesello, M;Lago, C;Okonechnikov, K;Anderle, M;Aiello, G;Antonica, F;Zhang, T;Gianno, F;Giangaspero, F;Hassan, B;Pfister, S;Tiberi, L.
bioRxiv,
(2020)
The identity of the cell of origin is a key determinant of cancer subtype, progression and prognosis. Group 3 Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant childhood brain cancer with poor prognosis and unknown cell of origin. We overexpressed the Group 3 MB genetic drivers MYC and Gfi1 in different candidate cells of origin in the postnatal mouse cerebellum. We found that S100b+ cells are competent to initiate Group 3 MB, while Math1+, Sox2+ or Ascl1+ cells are not. We noted that S100b+ cells have higher levels of Notch1 pathway activity compared to Math1+ cells. Interestingly, we found that additional activation of Notch1 in Math1+ cells was sufficient to induce Group 3 MB upon MYC/Gfi1 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that the MB cell of origin competence depends on the cellular identity, which relies on Notch1 activity.Graphical Abstract
Goodwin, K;Jaslove, J;Tao, H;Zhu, M;Hopyan, S;Nelson, C.
bioRxiv,
(2020)
Smooth muscle guides morphogenesis of epithelia during development of several organs, including the mammalian lung. However, it remains unclear how airway smooth-muscle differentiation is spatiotemporally patterned and whether it originates from distinct mesenchymal progenitors. Using single-cell RNA-sequencing of embryonic mouse lungs, we show that the pulmonary mesenchyme contains a continuum of cell identities, but no distinct progenitors. Transcriptional variability correlates with sub-epithelial and sub-mesothelial mesenchymal compartments that are regulated by Wnt signaling. Live-imaging and tension sensors reveal patterned migratory behaviors and cortical forces in each compartment, and show that sub-epithelial mesenchyme gives rise to airway smooth muscle. Differentiation trajectory reconstruction reveals that cytoskeleton, adhesion, and Wnt signaling pathways are activated early in differentiation. Finally, we show that Wnt activation stimulates the earliest stages of differentiation and induces local accumulation of mesenchymal F-actin, which influences epithelial morphology. Our work provides the first single-cell view of pulmonary mesenchymal patterning during branching morphogenesis.
Swoger, M;Gupta, S;Charrier, E;Bates, M;Hehnly, H;Patteson, A.
bioRxiv,
(2020)
The ability of cells to take and change shape is a fundamental feature underlying development, wound repair, and tissue maintenance. Central to this process is physical and signaling interactions between the three cytoskeletal polymeric networks: F-actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments (IFs). Vimentin is an IF protein that is essential to the mechanical resilience of cells and regulates cross-talk amongst the cytoskeleton, but its role in how cells sense and respond to the surrounding extracellular matrix is largely unclear. To investigate vimentin’s role in substrate sensing, we designed polyacrylamide hydrogels that mimic the elastic and viscoelastic nature of in vivo tissues. Using wild-type and vimentin-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that vimentin enhances cell spreading on viscoelastic substrates, even though it has little effect in the limit of purely elastic substrates. Our results provide compelling evidence that the vimentin cytoskeletal network is a physical modulator of how cells sense and respond to mechanical properties of their extracellular environment.
Riley, J;Hehnly, H;Castañeda, C.
bioRxiv,
(2020)
Mutations in Ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), a ubiquitin-binding shuttle protein involved in several protein quality control processes, can lead to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We previously found that wild-type UBQLN2 forms dynamic, membraneless biomolecular condensates upon cellular stress, and undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation in vitro. However, the impact of ALS-linked mutations on UBQLN2 condensate formation in cells is unknown. Here, we employ live-cell imaging with photokinetic analysis to investigate how five patient-derived ALS-linked mutations in UBQLN2 impact stress-induced UBQLN2 condensate assembly and condensate material properties. Both wild-type and mutant UBQLN2 condensates are generally cytoplasmic and liquid-like. However, cells transfected with mutant UBQLN2 contain fewer stress-induced UBQLN2 condensates than those with wild-type UBQLN2. Most strikingly, ectopically expressed P506T UBQLN2 forms the lowest number of stress-induced condensates of all UBQLN2 mutants, and these condensates are significantly smaller than those of wild-type UBQLN2. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of UBQLN2 condensates revealed higher immobile fractions for UBQLN2 mutants, especially P506T. P497S and P497H mutations differentially impact condensate properties, demonstrating that the effects of ALS-linked mutations are both position- and amino acid-dependent. Collectively, our data show that disease mutations hinder assembly and alter viscoelastic properties of stress-induced UBQLN2 condensates, potentially leading to aggregates commonly observed in ALS.
Zhang, H;Liu, M;Dilley, R;Chenoweth, D;Greenberg, R;Lampson, M.
bioRxiv,
(2019)
Telomerase-free cancer cells employ a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway that depends on ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (APBs), whose function is unclear. We find that APBs behave as liquid condensates, suggesting two potential mechanisms to promote telomere elongation: condensation to enrich DNA repair factors for telomere synthesis and coalescence to cluster telomeres to provide repair templates. Using chemically-induced dimerization, we show that telomere sumoylation nucleates APB condensation via SUMO-SIM (SUMO interaction motif) interactions and clusters telomeres. The induced APBs lack DNA repair factors, indicating that these factors are clients recruited to the APB scaffold rather than components that drive condensation. Telomere clustering, however, relies only on liquid properties of the condensate, as an alternative condensation chemistry also induces clustering. Our results demonstrate how the material properties and chemical composition of APBs independently contribute to ALT, suggesting a general framework for how liquid condensates promote cellular functions.
Arnold, ML;Cooper, J;Grant, BD;Driscoll, M;
J Vis Exp,
(163)
(2020)
Toxicity of misfolded proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction are pivotal factors that promote age-associated functional neuronal decline and neurodegenerative disease across species. Although these neurotoxic challenges have long been considered to be cell-intrinsic, considerable evidence now supports that misfolded human disease proteins originating in one neuron can appear in neighboring cells, a phenomenon proposed to promote pathology spread in human neurodegenerative disease. C. elegans adult neurons that express aggregating proteins can extrude large (~4 µm) membrane-surrounded vesicles that can include the aggregated protein, mitochondria, and lysosomes. These large vesicles are called “exophers” and are distinct from exosomes (which are about 100x smaller and have different biogenesis). Throwing out cellular debris in exophers may occur by a conserved mechanism that constitutes a fundamental, but formerly unrecognized, branch of neuronal proteostasis and mitochondrial quality control, relevant to processes by which aggregates spread in human neurodegenerative diseases. While exophers have been mostly studied in animals that express high copy transgenic mCherry within touch neurons, these protocols are equally useful in the study of exophergenesis using fluorescently tagged organelles or other proteins of interest in various classes of neurons. Described here are the physical features of C. elegans exophers, strategies for their detection, identification criteria, optimal timing for quantitation, and animal growth protocols that control for stresses that can modulate exopher production levels. Together, details of protocols outlined here should serve to establish a standard for quantitative analysis of exophers across laboratories. This document seeks to serve as a resource in the field for laboratories seeking to elaborate molecular mechanisms by which exophers are produced and by which exophers are reacted to by neighboring and distant cells.
Zhang, H;Zhao, R;Tones, J;Liu, M;Dilley, RL;Chenoweth, DM;Greenberg, RA;Lampson, MA;
Mol Biol Cell,
31
(18)
, 2048-2056
(2020)
Telomerase-free cancer cells employ a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway that depends on ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (APBs), whose function is unclear. We find that APBs behave as liquid condensates in response to telomere DNA damage, suggesting two potential functions: condensation to enrich DNA repair factors and coalescence to cluster telomeres. To test these models, we developed a chemically induced dimerization approach to induce de novo APB condensation in live cells without DNA damage. We show that telomere-binding protein sumoylation nucleates APB condensation via interactions between small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and SUMO interaction motif (SIM), and that APB coalescence drives telomere clustering. The induced APBs lack DNA repair factors, indicating that APB functions in promoting telomere clustering can be uncoupled from enriching DNA repair factors. Indeed, telomere clustering relies only on liquid properties of the condensate, as an alternative condensation chemistry also induces clustering independent of sumoylation. Our findings introduce a chemical dimerization approach to manipulate phase separation and demonstrate how the material properties and chemical composition of APBs independently contribute to ALT, suggesting a general framework for how chromatin condensates promote cellular functions.